Ketamin is a pharmaceutical compound that is abused as a narcotic drug, causing health problems for users. In controlling ketamine abuse, the detection of ketamine precursors can be a useful tool for tracing illegal ketamine production sites. In this study, an analytical method for determination of two ketamine precursors, 1-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyllimino methyl] cyclopentanol hydroclorid (CCM) and 2-Hydroxy-2- (o-chloro phenyl) cyclohexanon (HCH), in wastewater using solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatogrphy tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. An LC-MS/MS system employing a Zorbax C18 column (2.1 x 100 mm, 1.8 µm) and a mobile phase composing acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% (m/v) of formic acid in a gradient program at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and injection volume of 5 µL. The detection of analytes was done with electrospray ionization at positive mode (ESI+) employing multi reaction monitoring (MRM) at m/z of 238.5 and 225.5 for for CCM and HCH, respectively. The method was validated according to requirements of AOAC International and EC and was proved as reliable for intended use.
ketamin precursor, determination, wastewater, LC-MS/MS, SPE
. C. Yiu-Cheung, “Acute and chronic toxicity pattern in ketamin abusers in Hong Kong,” Journal of Medical Toxicology, vol. 8, no.3, pp. 267-270, 2012.
. T. Okon, “Ketamin: An introduction for the pain and palliative medicine physician,” Pain Physician, vol. 10, no.3, pp. 493-500, 2007.
. I. Dimitrov, W. Denny, and J. Jose, “Syntheses of Ketamin and Related Analogues: A Mini Review,” Synthesis, vol.50, no. 21, A-O, 2018.
. AOAC International, Appendix F: Guidelines for standard method performance requirements, AOAC International Official Methods of Analysis, 2012.
. European Commission, Version 1.1, 25 November 2021, EURL Guidance Document on Confirmation Method Validation, 2021.