Bìa tạp chí



Development of GC-MS for determination of benzene content in food products containing benzoate salts and ascorbic acid

Nguyen Nhu Thuong Le Thi Thuy Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao Vu Ngan Binh Nguyen Thi Anh Huong Tran Cao Son Vu Thi Trang
Published 10/02/2022

Article Details

How to Cite
Nguyen Nhu Thuong, Le Thi Thuy, Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao, Vu Ngan Binh, Nguyen Thi Anh Huong, Tran Cao Son, Vu Thi Trang. "Development of GC-MS for determination of benzene content in food products containing benzoate salts and ascorbic acid". Vietnam Journal of Food Control. vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 422-432, 2022

Main Article Content


Food products containing simultaneously benzoate salts and ascorbic acid have a risk of benzene formation. This study has developed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method GC-MS to determine the benzene content in foods containing benzoate salts and ascorbic acid simultaneously. The analyte sample was distilled to recover benzene and analyzed on GC-MS using a purge and trap injector, the analysis was controlled by benzened6 internal standard. The method has been validated for the parameters specified by AOAC. The method detection limit was 0.05 µg/kg, the method quantification limit was 0.15 µg/kg, the recovery ranged from 86.6 to 110.9%, Repeatability, RSDr in the range of 4.0 - 7.2%. The method has been applied to analyze the benzene content in 120 food samples including: soft drinks, fruit nectar, chili sauce and jam. Results of detecting benzene in 33 samples out of 120 surveyed samples, benzene content ranged from 0 to 109.7 µg/kg.


Benzene, purge and trap, GC-MS.


[1]. V. P. Salviano dos Santos, A. Medeiros Salgado, A. Guedes Torres, and K. S. Pereira, "Benzene as a chemical hazard in processed foods," International Journal of Food
Science, vol. 2015, 2015.
[2]. S. Kuang and W. Liang, "Clinical analysis of 43 cases of chronic benzene poisoning," Chemico-Biological Interactions, vol. 153, pp. 129-135, 2005.
[3]. WILBUR, S. B., et al, "Toxicological profile for benzene," US Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease
Registry. Atlanta, 2007.
[4]. B. D. Goldstein, "Benzene as a cause of lymphoproliferative disorders," ChemicoBiological Interactions, vol. 184, pp. 147-150, 2010.
[5]. E. Commission, "EC European Parliament and Council Directive 95/2/EC of 20 February 1995 on Food Additives Other than Colours and Sweeteners," ed, 1995.
[6]. L. K. Gardner, and G. D. Lawrence, "Benzene production from decarboxylation of benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and a transition-metal catalyst," Journal
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 41, pp. 693-695, 1993.
[7]. R. Medeiros Vinci, B. De Meulenaer, M. Andjelkovic, M. Canfyn, and I. Van Overmeire, "Factors influencing benzene formation from the decarboxylation of
benzoate in liquid model systems," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 24, pp. 12975-12981, 2011.
[8]. E.-J. Kim, S.-A. Park, and D.-M. Choi, "Analysis of benzene in beverages by headspace-GC/MS," Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, vol. 22, pp. 243-247, 2007.
[9]. J. K. Kusi, "Determination of Benzoic Acid and Benzene in Soft Drinks, Fruit Juices and Herbal Products Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography," 2013.
[10]. R. M. Vinci, M. Canfyn, B. De Meulenaer, T. De Schaetzen, I. Van Overmeire, J. De Beer, and J. V. Loco, "Determination of benzene in different food matrices by distillation and isotope dilution HS-GC/MS," Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 672, no. 1-2, pp. 124-129, 2010.
[11]. Z. D. Lourdes Cardeal, E. M. Guimarães, and F. Vilela Parreira, "Analysis of volatile compounds in some typical Brazilian fruits and juices by SPME-GC method," Food
Additives and Contaminants, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 508-513, 2005.
[12]. C. Van Poucke, C. l. Detavernier, J. F. Van Bocxlaer, R. Vermeylen, and C. Van Peteghem, "Monitoring the benzene contents in soft drinks using headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: A survey of the situation on the belgian market," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 4504-4510, 2008.
[13]. I. Techakriengkrai and C. Lertborwornwong, "The analysis of benzene contaminant in Thai commercial non-alcoholic beverages by Headspace Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry," International Food Research Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1883-1887, 2013.
[14]. TCVN-7873:2008, "Water - Determination of benzene content - Gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a capillary column," 2008.
[15]. AOAC, "Appendix F: Guidelines for Standard Method Performance Requirements (SMPR)," ed: AOAC INTERNATIONAL Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 2012.
[16]. K.-J. Jang, C. Cha, and K.-G. Lee, "Analysis and reduction of benzene in various beverages such as vitamin drinks and cranberry juice," LWT, vol. 115, pp. 108444, 2019.
[17]. C. K. Hung, I. F. Hung, J. Y. Yen, B. T. Hwang, and W. J. Soong, "Determination of benzene and alkylbenzenes in milk by purge and trap gas chromatography," Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, vol. 67, no. 1-2, pp. 1-7, 1998.