Bìa tạp chí



Development of method for determination and quantification of Alternaria mycotoxins in food by high resolution mass spectrometry

Vu Ngoc Tu Hoang Lan Huong Bui Cao Tien Tran Cao Son Nguyen Thai Hung Thu
Published 03/28/2022

Article Details

How to Cite
Vu Ngoc Tu, Hoang Lan Huong, Bui Cao Tien, Tran Cao Son, Nguyen Thai Hung Thu. "Development of method for determination and quantification of Alternaria mycotoxins in food by high resolution mass spectrometry". Vietnam Journal of Food Control. vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 55-67, 2022

Main Article Content


High-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is a highly sensitive, specific and accurate method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of three mycotoxins Alternaria (Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol Monomethyl Ete) (AME), Tenuazonic acid (TeA)). Chromatographic conditions include: column reversed phase C18, mobile phases in gradient mode with two channels of H2O and MeOH containing 0.1 % formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate. HRMS high resolution mass spectrometer detector with negative electron ionization (ESI-) source is used. Samples were cleaned and enriched using an Oasis HLB solid phase extraction column. The method has a limit of quantitation (LOQ) for AOH and AME of 1.0 µg/kg and TeA of 1.0 µg/kg with recovery from 80.0 to 114.8 %, repeatability from 0.07 - 9.9 %, meeting the requirements of AOAC and European regulations. The method was applied to detect and quantify Alternaria mycotoxins in 80 food samples collected in Hanoi city. AOH was detected in 04/20 vegetable samples (3.3 - 178 µg/kg), 03/20 fruit samples (5.6 - 7.3 µg/kg), 06/20 cereal samples (13.4 - 17.4 µg/kg), 03/20 oil seed samples (13.2 - 25.2 µg/kg); detected AME in 01/20 vegetable samples (7.5 µg/kg), 02/20 fruit samples (< 3 µg/kg), 01/20 cereal samples (9.5 µg/kg), 02/20 oil seed samples (< 3 µg/kg); detected TeA in 02/20 vegetable samples (9.0 µg/kg), 01/20 cereal samples (< 3 µg/kg), 02/20 oil seed samples (< 3 µg/kg), not detected in fruit samples.


LC-HRMS, SPE, Alternaria mycotoxins, AOH, AME, TeA, food.


[1]. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, Appendix F: Guidelines for standard method performance requirements. 2012.
[2]. Chain, EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food, "Scientific opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of Alternaria toxins in feed and food," EFSA Journal., vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 2407, 2021.
[3]. Chiara Dall’Asta, Martina Cirlini, and Claudia Falavigna, "Mycotoxins from Alternaria", Advances in Molecular Toxicology, vol. 8 pp. 107-121, 2014.
[4]. European Commission, Method Validation and Quality Control Procedures for Pesticide Residues Analysis in Food and Feed, SANTE/12682/2019, 2019.
[5]. Liu, GT, et al, "Relationships between Alternaria alternata and oesophageal cancer," IARC scientific publications, vol. 105, pp. 258-262, 1991.
[6]. Rubert, J., et al, "Analysis of mycotoxins in barley using ultra high liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry: comparison of efficiency and efficacy of different extraction procedures," Talanta. vol. 99, pp. 712-719, 2012.
[7]. Siegel, David, et al-, "Quantification of the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid in beer", Food Chemistry, vol.120, no. 3, pp. 902-906, 2010.
[8]. Tölgyesi, Á., Stroka, J., Tamosiunas, V., & Zwickel, T, "Simultaneous analysis of Alternariatoxins and citrinin in tomato: an optimised method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry," Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol. 32, no. 9, pp.1512–1522, 2015.
[9]. Walravens, J., et al, "Validated UPLC-MS/MS Methods To Quantitate Free and Conjugated Alternaria Toxins in Commercially Available Tomato Products and Fruit and Vegetable Juices in Belgium," Journal Agriculture and Food Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 24, pp. 5101-5109, 2016.
[10]. Walravens, J., et al, "Development and validation of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of free and conjugated Alternaria toxins in cereal-based foodstuffs", Journal of Chromatography A, no. 1372C, pp. 91-101, 2014.
[11]. Zwickel, T., et al., "Development of a high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based analysis for the simultaneous quantification of various Alternaria toxins in wine, vegetable juices and fruit juices," Journal of Chromatography A, no. 1455, pp. 74-85, 2016.