Bìa tạp chí


Determination of ethylene oxide and 2-chloro-ethanol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Internal standard and stainless-steel ball coupled with QuOil in high-fat food extraction

Published 09/23/2022

Article Details

How to Cite
Dinh Viet Chien, Nguyen Thi Hong Ngoc, Bui Cao Tien, Tran Cao Son, Tran Trung Thanh, Nguyen Ha Thanh, Phung Cong Ly, Pham Thi Thanh Ha, Nguyen Thi Anh Huong, Le Thi Hong Hao, Thai Nguyen Hung Thu. "Determination of ethylene oxide and 2-chloro-ethanol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Internal standard and stainless-steel ball coupled with QuOil in high-fat food extraction". Vietnam Journal of Food Control. vol. 5, no. 4 (en), pp. 608-621, 2022

Main Article Content


A determination method of ethylene oxide (ETO) and 2-chloro-ethanol (2-CE) in foods, especially those with high-fat content, by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed. The analysis was performed with a TG-WAX column (60 m × 0.32 mm × 1 µm), with a programmable temperature vaporization-large volume injection method (PTV-LVI). ETO, 2-CE, and isotope internal standard 2-chloroethanol-d4 (2-CE-d4) were extracted by the QuOil (a variation of QuEChERS method), in combination with the use of stainless-steel balls, especially effective with high-fat matrices and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For both compounds, the method has high specificity and selectivity with a detection limit of 0.003 mg/kg, the linear range of 0.01 - 0.2 mg/kg, reproducibility and recovery meet AOAC requirements. This method has been applied to analyze 1668 samples during the period 2021-2022 at the National Institute for Food Control (NIFC).


ethylene oxide, 2-chloro-ethanol, QuOil, stainless steel balls, GC-MS/MS.


[1]. Food Safety AUTHORITY OF IRELAND, “Recall of Certain Batches of Instant Noodle Products due to the Presence of the Unauthorised Pesticide Ethylene Oxide.” Aug. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.fsai.ie/news_centre/food_alerts/instant_noodles_ethylene_oxide_recall.html [Accessed Aug. 08, 2022].
[2]. Cultivated plants, “Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market.” 1991. [Online]. Available: https://www.ecolex.org/details/legislation/council-directive-91414eec-concerningthe-placing-of-plant-protection-products-on-the-market-lex-faoc018635/ [Accessed Aug. 08, 2022].
[3]. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Ethylene Oxide | NIOSH | CDC,” Dec. 02, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ethyleneoxide/default.html [Accessed Aug. 08, 2022].
[4]. A. S. de Oliveira et al., “Infographics and Pericyclic Reactions: Multimodal Resources in Teaching of Organic Chemistry,” Creative Education., vol. 07, no. 15, pp. 2163-2174, 2016.
[5]. “Ethylene Oxide - IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2008. pp. 185–287. ISBN 978-92-832-1297-3. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2019.” Jan. 16, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://web.archive.org/web/20170116233424/http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol97/mono97-7.pdf [Accessed: Sep. 07, 2021].
[6]. “EUR-Lex - 32015R0868 - EN - EUR-Lex.” Jun. 10, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32015R0868 [Accessed Aug. 09, 2022].
[7]. National Archives, “40 CFR 180.151 -- Ethylene oxide; tolerances for residues.” Sept. 11, 2009. [Online]. Available: https://www.ecfr.gov/current/title-40/chapterI/subchapter- E/part-180/subpart-C/section-180.151 [Accessed Sep. 05, 2022].
[8]. H. Canada, “Proposed Maximum Residue Limit PMRL2019-29, Ethylene Oxide,” Jan. 02, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/consumer-product-safety/pesticides-pest-management/public/consultations/proposed-maximum-residue-limit/2019/ethylene-oxide/document.html [Accessed Sep. 05, 2022].
[9]. The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation, "The Japanese Positive List System for Agricultural Chemical Residues in Foods" [Online]. Available: https://www.ffcr.or.jp/en/zanryu/the-japanese-positive/the-japanese-positive-listsystem-for-agricultural-chemical-residues-in-foods-enforcement-on-may-29-.html [Accessed Sep. 05, 2022].
[10]. The Australia New Zealand Food Authority, "Application A445 - Maximum Residue Limits – Section 37.” Mar. 13, 2000. [Online]. Available: https://www.foodstandards.gov.au/code/applications/documents/A445_FARs37.pdf [Accessed: Sep. 05, 2022].
[11]. European Commission, “Summary of the Technical Meeting on Ethylene Oxide (ETO).” Jan. 20, 2022 [Online]. Available: https://food.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2022-02/rasff_ethylene-oxide-incident_e410_crisis-coord_20220120_sum.pdf [Accessed: Aug. 31, 2022].
[12]. EN 15662:2018, “Foods of plant origin. Multimethod for the determination of pesticide residues using GC- and LC-based analysis following acetonitrile extraction/partitioning and clean-up by dispersive SPE. Modular QuEChERS-method”
[13]. CEN/TS 17062:2019, “Foods of plant origin - Multimethod for the determination of pesticide residues in vegetable oils by LC-MS/MS (QuOil).”
[14]. K. G. Jensen, “Determination of ethylene oxide residues in processed food products by gas-liquid chromatography after derivatization,” Z. Fr Lebensm.-Unters. -Forsch., vol. 187, no. 6, pp. 535-540, 1998.
[15]. P. Aitkenhead and A. Vidnes, “Simple and Accurate Method for Determination of Ethylene Chlorohydrin in Dried Spices and Condiments,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 729-731, 1988.
[16]. F. Tateo and M. Bononi, “Determination of ethylene chlorohydrin as marker of spices fumigation with ethylene oxide,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 83-87, 2006.
[17]. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis (2012), "Appendix F: Guidelines for standard method performance requirements" [Online]. Available: http://www.eoma.aoac.org/app_f.pdf [Accessed: Nov. 22, 2021].
[18]. EU Reference Laboratories for Residues of Pesticides - Single Residue Methods, “Analysis of Ethylene Oxide and its Metabolite 2-Chloroethanol by the QuOil or the QuEChERS Method and GC-MS/MS.” Dec. 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.eurl-pesticides.eu/library/docs/srm/EurlSrm_Observation_EO_V1.pdf [Accessed: Aug. 08, 2022]
[19]. Agilent Technoligies, “Ethylene Oxide & 2-Chloroethanol analysis in Foods using Triple Quadrupole GC/MS/MS: Consumables Workflow Ordering Guide,” pp. 7.
[20]. P. O. of the E. Union, “Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/808 of 22 March 2021 on the performance of analyti cal methods for residues of pharmacologically active substances used in food-producing animals and on the interpretation of results as well as on the methods to be used for sampling and repealing Decisions 2002/657/EC and 98/179/EC (Text with EEA relevance), C/2021/1772,” Mar. 22, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/3dc2b06b-b9cf-11eb-8aca-01aa75ed71a1/language-en [Accessed Sep. 06, 2022].
[21]. Codex Alimentarius, “Guidelines on estimation of uncertainty of results,” pp. 9.
[22]. “ISO/TS 21748:2004 Guidance for the use of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness estimates in measurement uncertainty estimation" [Online]. Available: https://www.iso.org/cms/render/live/en/sites/isoorg/contents/data/standard/03/46/34686.html [Accessed Nov. 25, 2021].
[23]. CVUA Stuttgart, "Chemicals Rather than Bacteria? – Neither is Permitted in the EU” Dec. 10, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.ua-bw.de/pesticides/beitrag_en.asp?subid=1&ID=3295&lang=EN [Accessed Sep. 06, 2021].