In recent years, the use of natural herbal remedies in disease treatment in Vietnam has been significantly considered. Research on the chemical composition, microscopic characteristics, and extraction of active components from herbal materials play an important role in medicinal applications. This study aims to describe the microscopic features of fresh Bishopwood leaves using a dual staining method, examine leaf powder under a microscope, determine the components using chemical reactions, and investigate the influence of factors such as ethanol concentration, time, temperature, and the ratio of raw materials to solvents on the process of extracting flavonoids from Bishopwood leaves. Through unique chemical reactions, the components of Bishopwood leaves were identified to include flavonoids, phenolics, tannins, steroids, proteins, carbohydrates, and anthranoids. Microscopic examination of fresh Bishopwood leaves and leaf powder under a microscope revealed characteristic structural components including epidermis, stomata, parenchyma, sclerenchyma, fiber bundles, and vascular bundles. The appropriate conditions for extracting flavonoids from Bishopwood leaves were using 50% ethanol as the extraction solvent, a 3-hour extraction time, a temperature of 60 °C, and a raw material-to-solvent ratio of 1 : 30 (g/mL). The research findings serve as valuable information contributing to the identification, standardization, and development of new drugs from local medicinal materials.
Bishop wood leaves, Bischofia javanica Blume, chemical compositions, microscopic characteristics, flavonoid.
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