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Determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in aquatic products by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

Nguyen Tuan Anh Nguyen Duc Anh Trac Nguyen Quang Thien Le Cong Nhan
Received: 15 Feb 2023
Revised: 17 May 2023
Accepted: 17 May 2023
Published: 30 Jun 2023

Article Details

How to Cite
Nguyen Tuan Anh, Nguyen Duc Anh Trac, Nguyen Quang Thien, Le Cong Nhan. "Determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in aquatic products by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry". Vietnam Journal of Food Control. vol. 6, no. 2 (en), pp. 143-155, 2023

Main Article Content


Lipophilic marine biotoxins include Azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), Azaspiracid-2 (AZA-2), Azaspiracid-3 (AZA-3), Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX 2), Okadaic acid (OA), Dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2), Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), Yessotoxin (YTX), and 1-Homoyessotoxin (Homo-YTX) were extracted with methanol, followed by cleaning up with solid phase extraction technique (SPE). Lipophilic toxins were confirmed and quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) using calibration curves on the solvent. The quantification limits of this method satisfied the requirements of the European Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs) with 25 µg/kg for the YTX group and 10 µg/kg for AZA, OA, and PTX groups. To validate the effectiveness of this method, matrices of clams, fish, and mixed seafood were collected and analyzed (recovery ranged from 92.4 - 101.5%, and relative standard deviation was less than 20%). The method was used successfully to participate in a proficiency testing program organized by Quasimeme (z-score in the range of ±2).


Lipophilic marine biotoxins, LC-MS/MS, SPE, Shellfish.


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