Bìa tạp chí



Determination of amygdalin in kernels and their products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Nguyen Ha Thanh Tran Trung Thanh Nguyen Thi Hong Ngoc Cao Cong Khanh Pham Thi Thanh Ha
Published 01/06/2023

Article Details

How to Cite
Nguyen Ha Thanh, Tran Trung Thanh, Nguyen Thi Hong Ngoc, Cao Cong Khanh, Pham Thi Thanh Ha. "Determination of amygdalin in kernels and their products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry". Vietnam Journal of Food Control. vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 24-37, 2023

Main Article Content


Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside, a natural toxicant in Rosaceae spp. such as almonds, peaches, and apricots, and may appear in products containing them. Amygdalin, after being absorbed into the body, will be hydrolyzed and release hydrocyanic acid, which is capable of causing poisoning in humans. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with negative mode electrospray ionization and multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to develop and validate a method for determining amygdalin on food according to AOAC guidelines. Chloramphenicol was chosen as the internal standard. The mobile phase consists of two channels: channel A (formic acid 0.1%), channel B (acetonitril) and the solid phase is symmetry C18 column (3 mm × 150 mm, 3.5 μm). The method has been validated according to AOAC 2016 guidelines. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of amygdalin in food was 15 and 50 μg/kg, respectively. The linearity ranges from 1.68 to 33.6 ng/mL. Recovery was from 86.2 to 110.0 %, and the relative standard was from 2.8 to 5.0 %. The validated method is applied to determine amygdalin content in some kernels and their products on Hanoi's market.


amygdalin, chloramphenicol, LC-MS/MS, kernel.


[1]. D. Chassagne, J. C. Crouzet, C. L. Bayonove, and R. L. Baumes, “Identification and quantification of passion fruit cyanogenic glycosides,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 3817-3820, 1996.
[2]. J. Guo, W. Wu, M. Sheng, S. Yang, and J. Tan, “Amygdalin inhibits renal fibrosis in chronic kidney disease,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1453-1457, 2013.
[3]. H. Mirmiranpour, S. Khaghani, A. Zandieh, O. O. Khalilzadeh, S. Gerayesh-Nejad,A. Morteza, and A. Esteghamati, “Amygdalin inhibits angiogenesis in the cultured endothelial cells of diabetic rats,” Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 211-214, 2012.
[4]. M. Halenar, L. Chrastinova, L. Ondruska, R. Jurcik, K. Zbynovska, E. Tusimova, and A. Kolesarova, “The evaluation of endocrine regulators after intramuscular and oral application of cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in rabbits,” Biologia, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 468-474, 2017.
[5]. A. Baroni, I. Paoletti, R. Greco, R. Satriano, E. Ruocco, M. Tufano, J. Perez, “Immunomodulatory effects of a set of amygdalin analogues on human keratinocyte cells,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 854-859, 2005.
[6]. F. Nabavizadeh, A. M. Alizadeh, Z. S. Adroleslami, S. Adeli, “Gastroprotective effects of amygdalin on experimental gastric ulcer: Role of NO and TNF-alpha,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 5, no. 14, pp. 3122-3127, 2011.
[7]. D. Jiagang, H. Wang, Y. Liu, , C. Li, E. Hao, Z. Du, C. Bao, J. Lv, and Y. Wang, “Anti-atherosclerotic effects mediated by the combination of probucol and amygdalin in apolipoprotein e-knockout mice fed with a high fat diet,” Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 20-25, 2012.
[8]. Y. Cheng, C.Yang, J. Zhao, H. F. Tse, and J. Rong, “Proteomic identification of calcium-binding chaperone calreticulin as a potential mediator for the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of fruit-derived glycoside amygdalin,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 146-154, 2015.
[9]. E. Jaszczak-Wilke, A. Polkowska, M. Koprowski, K. Owsianik, A. E. Mitchell, and P. Bałczewski, “Amygdalin: toxicity, anticancer activity and analytical procedures for its determination in plant seeds,” Molecules, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 2253, 2021.
[10]. V. Schulz, R. Bonn, J. Kindler, “Kinetics of elimination of thiocyanate in 7 healthy subjects and 8 subjects with renal failure,” Klin Wochenschr, vol. 57, pp. 243-2477, 1979.
[11]. T. Dang, C. Nguyen, and P. N. Tran, “Physician beware: severe cyanide toxicity from amygdalin tablets ingestion,” Case Reports in Emergency Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 1-3, 2017.
[12]. I. F. Bolarinwa, C. Orfila, and M. R. Morgan, “Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK,” Food Chemistry, vol. 152, pp. 133-139, 2014.
[13]. N. Karsavuran, M. Charehsaz, H. Celik, B. M. Asma, C. Yakıncı, and A. Aydın, “Amygdalin in bitter and sweet seeds of apricots,” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, vol. 96, no. 10, pp. 1564-1570, 2014.
[14]. T. Tanaka, K. Kimura, K. Kan, Y. Katori, K. Michishita, H. Nakano, and T. Sasamoto, “Quantification of amygdalin, prunasin, total cyanide and free cyanide in powdered loquat seeds,” Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1503-1509, 2020.
[15]. M. Gao, Y. Wang, H. Wei, H. Ouyang, M. He, L. Zeng, F. Shen, Q. Guo and Y. Rao, “Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry,” Chinese Journal of Chromatography, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 591, 2014.
[16]. V. D. Nikolic, I. M. Savic, L. B. Nikolic, and M. Z. Stankovic, “Development and validation of HPLC method for the determination of amygdalin in the plant extract of plum kernel,” Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 80-86. 2012.
[17]. I. M. Savic, V. D. Nikolic, I. M. Savic-Gajic, L. B.Nikolic, S. R. Ibric, and D. G. Gajic, “Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen),” Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 6, pp. 276, 2015.
[18]. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, Appendix F: Guidelines for standard method performance requirements, 2012.