Bìa tạp chí



Simultaneous determination of furan and its derivatives in food by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS)

Nguyen Thi Ha Binh Bui Cao Tien Mai Thi Ngoc Anh Pham Thi Hoai Le Thi Hong Hao
Published 05/28/2021

Article Details

How to Cite
Nguyen Thi Ha Binh, Bui Cao Tien, Mai Thi Ngoc Anh, Pham Thi Hoai, Le Thi Hong Hao. "Simultaneous determination of furan and its derivatives in food by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS)". Vietnam Journal of Food Control. vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 182-189, 2021

Main Article Content


A method for the simultaneous determination of furans, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran in some food by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has successfully developed. Analysed samples were treated by a headspace technique using furan-d4 as an internal standard. The detection limit of the method is 0.3 µg/kg, the quantitative limit of the method is 1.0 µg/kg. The recovery of the method is in the range of 72 to 110%. The relative standard deviation ranges from 3.3 to 13%. The method was applied to analyze 100 food samples, including: coffees, canned meats, baby foods, powdered milk. The results showed that furans, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran were detected in 30 samples out of 100 collected samples. In particular, furans were found in a ranges of 5.7 to 2803 µg/kg in all of coffee samples, including instant coffee and roasted coffee. In addition, furans were detected in one baby food sample contains, furans and 2-methylfuran in four canned meat samples, and no furans milk were detected in powder sample among 25 analysed samples.


GC-MS, headspace, furan, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran.


[1]. Robles, “Furan”, Encyclopedia of Toxicology, Third Edition, 2014.
[2]. Adam Becalski, and Stephen Seaman, “Furan Precursors in Food: A Model Study and Development of a Simple Headspace Method for Determination of Furan”, Journal of AOAC International, vol. 88, no.1, pp. 102-106, 2005.
[3]. V. Ravindranath, L. T. Burka, and M. R. Boyd, “Reactive metabolites from the bioactivation of toxic methylfurans”, Science, vol. 224, no. 465, pp. 884-886, 1984.
[4]. V. Ravindranath, and M. R. Boyd, “Metabolic activation of 2-methylfuran by rat microsomal systems”, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 370-376, 1985.
[5]. J. Vrannová, and Z. Ciesarová, “Furan in food - A review”, Czech Journal of Food Science, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-10, 2009.
[6]. L. M. Gammal, R. A. Wiley, G. Traiger, W. M. Haschek, and S. Baraban, “Toxicity-distribution relationships among 3-alkylfurans in the mouse lung”, Toxicology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 177-184, 1984.
[7]. Wiley, Traiger, et al., “Toxicity-distribution relationships among 3-alkylfurans in mouse liver and kidney”, Toxicololy and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 74, no.1, pp. 1-9, 1984.
[8]. IARC, “Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans; dry cleaning, some chlorinated solvents and other industrial chemicals”, Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 1995.
[9]. Morehouse, Nyman et al., “Survey of furan in heat processed foods by headspace gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry and estimated adult exposure”, Food Additive and Contaminant, Part A Chemical Analysis Control Exposure and Risk Assessment, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 259-264, 2008.
[10]. Th. Kuball, “Furan in Kaffee und Anderen Lebensmitteln”, Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 429-433, 2007.
[11]. AOAC Offical Methods of Analysis, “Appendix F: Guidelines for Standard Method Performance Requirements”, AOAC International, 2006.